AYD has been manufacturing chassis, steering and suspension parts for more then 35 years.
To summarize the knuckle, it is actually a mechanical part that works like a human wrist and can turn in any direction and it is positioned to connect the steering wheel and steering box. The reason is that the steering is not connected to the steering box at a right angle, so there is a need for a piece that can turn freely, which is knuckle.
It is the gap between turning of the steering wheel and the response of the wheels to this amount of rotation. This very little steering gap is normally desired due to the fact that if steering wheel transmits extremely precise rolling movements to the wheels,the driving safety is likely to reduce. However, too much steering gap also decreases driving safety, owing to the fact that the driver must constantly turn the steering wheel to the left and right while the vehicle is travelling on the road. This situation can be observed in very old vehicles.
* Steering wheel may be out of adjustment and strips might be slack.
* Corrosion, aging, slacking at the steering tie rods and tie rods.
* Gap, abrasion, maladjustment of the steering gearbox.
* Corrosion of the wheel ball (bearing) or making of a gap.
* Abrasion of axle heads.
* Detrition or slack in the knuckle where on the steering shaft before the steering gear box.
*The connection of the axon-damper pole, which is in suspension system connections, may be tender or lower swing ball joint might corrupted or slack.
When the vehicle is subjected to the impacts of the road surface, the suspension springs receive these impacts by lengthening or shortening and it makes an oscillating movement for a while at this time. In point of fact, a spring is expected to stop after a short swing and at the same time, the springs have to be both sufficiently rigid and ductilitable. In addition, it is imperative for safety and comfort that the springs do not cause excessive vibration in the vehicle in the cases of compression and loosening. As a consequence, there is a need for an equipment that provides the relaxation and compression of the spring softly, which does not transmit the shock and impact to the frame, and stops the uncontrolled swing in a short time. The component of the suspension system that absorbs the motions of springs by controlling the oscillation of the springs is called a shock absorber. Spring oscillations with shock absorbers are damped at lower frequencies and in a shorter time period. Shock absorbers limit the oscillations of the springs by using the resistance of the oil which is moving in the channels where is inside the piston. Furthermore, it absorbs the vibrations from the body of the vehicle and provides a comfortable ride.
- It shortens the oscillation time of the springs.
- It provides driving safety by ensuring that the tires sustain the contact with the ground in any case.
- It augments steerability with providing better road holding on the tires.
- It improves ride comfort by reducing lying down, sliding, jumping, quaking during braking and upward movement of the front during acceleration, and the downfall of the rear.
- The handling of the vehicle is weakened.
- The maximum safety speed of a vehicle, whose dampers are worn by 50% when cornering and on a dry ground, is reduced by 10%.
- Hardening and vibration occur at the steering wheel.
- There might softening in the suspension system.
- On the wet roads, the vehicle slips. On a road covered with 6mm of water, a front-wheel drive vehicle with 50% corrupted shock absorbers starts to slide at 10% lower speed than a new vehicle with shock absorbers.
- Night vision of the vehicle might impaired. In other words, wavy or irregular illumination of the road makes night vision dangerous and tiring. Excessive shaking of the body of the vehicle causes the eyes of the drivers of the vehicle to be disturbed by the headlight coming from the opposite direction,.
- Irregular and rapid corrosion occurs in the tires. When we examine the tires of the vehicle, a regional tire abrasion is a symptom of a damaged shock absorber.
The chassis of a vehicle carries the load, the drive train and the engine. Moreover, the chassis frame is settled on the wheels with the help of springs and other linkages and the springs are placed between the wheels and the axle. In addition, springs are components which store energy. Specifically, impacts coming from the road to the vehicle while travelling are transmitted to the springs as kinetic energy in a very short time by means of wheels and the springs store this energy as potential energy by compressing it. After a while, the springs release potential energy into kinetic energy with a rather slow oscillating motion. This operation, which is repeated many times, can be called spring swing. However, each bounce is smaller than the previous one, and the vehicle eventually stops the moving up and down. Furthermore, if these oscillation movements are not keep in the control, it will not only cause driving discomfort, but will also affect steerability in a negative way; as a result, shock absorbers control the extreme oscillations and vibrations of the springs. Thus, the impacts coming from the road are damped on the spring before conveying to the chassis.
- It takes on the weight and mass forces of the vehicle.
- For driving comfort, it blocks up the impact of the road and turns it into soft vibrations.
- It provides high adhesion of the wheels to the road surface to ensure driving safety.
The following spring types are used in motor vehicles:
- Metallic springs
- Leaf springs
- Coil springs
- Torsion bar springs
- Non-metallic springs
- Rubber Wedges
- Pneumatic (air cushioned) springs
- Hydro-pneumatic springs
These are the components which are located at the points where the metal connection arms are connected with the suspension system, which prevent metal corruption and noise due to friction, and are generally made of rubber material and ensure the connections to be held more tightly together. The life of a any machine means the life of the pin and bushing used in the production process of that machine parts. The more qualified material the pin and bush are made of, the more rigid it is installed, the more performance and lifetime the machine has.
- Regular checks are recommended for bushings of your vehicle. The bushings and joints are ideally tested during maintenance, technical monitoring tests, as well as during brake repairs or tire changes.
- A visual check for cracks, metal corruption, or fluid leaks helps to determine the level of the problem about bushings and joints and if so, which parts are faulty.
- In strut mounts, after they are removed, the maintenance service might also examine the “settlement” of suspicious bushings and joints.
- The difference between the old and the new mount should not exceed two to three millimeters. In addition, there should be no folds or cracks on the rubber / tire and should not be separated from the metal.
- Attention should be paid to fluid leakage in hydraulic bushings and joints.
- Although bushings and joints are not typically wearing parts, they are constantly exposed to high dynamic stress and harmful environmental influences such as heat, de-icing salt and ozone. Consequently, this can lead to the signs of fatigue. If the knuckle and axle bearings do not operate properly, clicks, squeaks and noises may occur while travelling through short bumpy roads. Other indicators are:
- Swings on the steering or “trembling” brakes.
- Damaged or malfunctioning strut mounts can increase stopping distance, may lead to uncomfortable driving or aggravate steering.
- Damage of the bushings and joints on the chassis not only affects safety and comfort, but also has a negative impact on adjacent chassis components.
- When a malfunction is detected, the mounts always have to be replaced immediately and, if possible, in pairs.
The control arm is a product that has a mobile characteristics, which carries the wheel and the chassis while connects the suspension with them. Moreover, the control arm, which is normally connected with a single rubber bushing, can adjust the position of the outer section while maintaining the radial distance with the inner mounted section. Additionally, the control arm is one of the parts of the suspension system that carry the highest load mechanically; therefore, it is important to replace it in case of corruption or breakage.
The control arm or swing (depending on the type of suspension) which connects the shaft, the hub or the knuckle and the wheel to the vehicle’s chassis is an important part of the steering and suspension system of all vehicles. Furthermore, it is known as “A arm”, it allows the wheels to move up and down and, on the other hand, prevents forward or backward movement and tracks the return input which is received from the driver. Thanks to the control arms, the wheels can follow the exact motions of steering wheel. Since this is a highly important issue, you should always use a qualified steering brand that performs the same standard as the original equipment.
Usually replacement is done due to the corruption of rod ends or bushings but replacing these parts individually can be extremely time consuming and costly. It is, therefore, advocated that replacing all parts in one time will be more efficient and provide a longer term solution. In addition, if the wheel is damaged by an accident, replacement of the swing arm may be considered.
Ball joint is a spherical joint , which connects heads of the axle with the AYD suspension arms. Specifically, while the piece which links head of the axle with the top suspension arms is called kingpin, the piece which binds head of the axle with bottom suspension arms is called lower ball joint. Ball joints are lubricated only in the production process and there is no other implementation of lubrication is available for that parts. The fundamental task of the ball joint is that they provide sustainability of the link of the axles even though diverse actions of the wheels. In other words, it can be expressed as the binding of the human arms with the human body and they may also be mentioned as the diarthroses of the vehicles.
The most common symptoms of the failed ball joints are;
- Negative camber will be revealed.
- The abrasion level of the inner sides of the wheels are likely to be higher than the outer sides’.
- The vehicle might produce a click while passing through the holes.
- The automobile will squeaks while passing towards the ramps.
- If the problem is revealed in one side of the car, it may draw to the problematic side.
- While the instant brakes, the wheels start to wobbling and produce voices.
- While the rapid accelerations, the vehicle extract “tock” sound.
These are the most common symptoms of the corrupted ball joints. However, it can be considered that the types of the symptoms are varying according to the brand and the model of the vehicle.
If the corrupted ball joints are not be replaced by new ones, they lead to damages on extra equipments and threat the driving comfort.
- Causes the erosion of the wheels: The failed ball joints are likely to induce negative or positive camber on the wheels and leads to erosion of the wheels. The level of erosion is altering according to the level of corruption of the ball joints evenly. Consequently, there will be additional cost of the wheels to the cost of the problematic ball joint.
- The vehicle can not follow the constant axis: That occurrence lead to decrease the level of the control of the driver and may cause crashes.
The corrupted ball joint might totally break: In this case, the wheel components of the vehicle may move away from the flange. It is the most dangerous and austere consequences of the corrupted ball joints.